Umrah literally means visit. In religious terminology, it means to visit Baytullah (house of Allah) in ihram and to make sa’y (going between Safa and Marwa).
Umrah is a virtuous ibadah (worship) indicated in the 196th Ayah of Surah Al-Baqarah ‘’And complete the Hajj and Umrah …’’ According to the Hanafi and Maliki madhhabs (schools) performing Umrah once in a lifetime is muakkad Sunnah and Fardh according to Shafii and Hanbali madhhabs.
The Arkan (pillars) of Umrah are wearing ihram, making tawaf, sa’y and shaving (or trimming) the hair.
Hadhrat Qatada (Radhiyallahu Anhu) says, ‘’I asked Anas (Radhiyallahu Anhu) how many times Rasûlullâh (Sallallâhu Alayhi Wa Sallam) performed Umrah to which he replied four.
The occasion in which Muslims left Madinah and were prevented from entering Makkah and making Tawaf, which resulted in signing the Treaty of Hudaybiyah without performing the Umrah.
The Umrah that he intended to perform in Jirana, while distributing the booty of Hunayn.
Hadhrat Qatada (Radhiyallahu Anhu) asked Anas (Radhiyallahu Anhu) how many times Rasûlullâh (Sallallâhu Alayhi Wa Sallam) performed Hajj to which he replied once at the time of farewell Hajj.
As Rasûlullâh (Sallallâhu Alayhi Wa Sallam) was going to perform his Umrah, he said to Aisha (Radhiyallahu Anhu): “There is reward for you as much as your tiredness and what you spend.” (Hajj and Umrah Guide, Fazilet Publishing)
Abu Dhar (Radhiyallahu Anhu) narrated that Rasûlullâh (Sallallâhu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said: “Dawud (Alayhis Salam) said, ‘O my Rabb! What is the reward for your servants who visit your House?’ Allah Ta’ala said: “Every visitor has a right when a visit is made, O Dawud! I promise that I will give them afiyah (well being) in this world, and forgive them when they come to Me.”
Ihram: It consists of intention and talbiyah, which means to be involved in the haram by intending both, according to hajj, umrah, or qira. In the meantime, the two pieces of cover, called the rida and the izar, worn by men, are called ihram among the people (the ihram of women is their normal dress). It is to render certain permissible acts unlawful in order to perform Hajj and Umrah. (İnaye c.2, p.429)
The mystery and wisdom of entering ihram: By undressing, which is the ornament of the world; To think about the birth and the resurrection of the dead, the place of Judgment, the day of reckoning, the balance is to attain the divine divinity by being clean. Hajj and Umrah cannot be performed without Ihram.
Khâlid bin Walîd (radiyallâhu anh) embraced Islam in the year when Rasûlullâh (sallallâhu alayhi wa sallam) performed Umrah (lesser Hajj) after the Treaty of Hudaybiyah. He participated the Conquest of Makkah al-Mukarramah. He dispersed a group of Makkans who attacked his troops trying to enter the city. He eradicated idolatry in many parts of Arabia and earned the title of Sayfullâh (The sword of Allâh). He also commanded the Muslim armies which conquered the Roman and Persian lands.
Abu Ubaydah bin Jarrah (radiyallahu anhu) caught the plague when he was a governor in Jordan, during the Khilafah of Hadrat Umar (radiyallahu anhu). He called the Muslims and addressed them: “Let me give you some advice that if you adhere to them you would never be away from Khayr (good):
Perform your Salah and pay your Zakah. Fast in Ramadan al-Sharif, discharge Sadaqah, perform Hajj and Umrah. Take care of each other by advising one another. Obey your Amirs (leaders), do not betray them, let worldly wealth not occupy you. Even if a person lives for a thousand years, their end is death.
And the person who sets off for hajj or Umrah just for the pleasure of Allah Ta’ala. He will be regarded as a delegation sent to Allah Ta’ala and until he comes back he will be under the safety and protection of Him.”
Rasulullah (s.a.w) says:
“There is no doubt that this Bayt (Ka’bah) is one of the foundations of Islam. Whoever performs Hajj and Umrah, they have been guaranteed by Allah. If they die on this journey, then Allah will place them in Jannah, but if they return to their families, then they will return with many treasures.”
Tawaf is to take the Kaaba to our left, starting from the corner where Haceru-l Esved is located, and to walk around it seven times. Each circumnavigation of the Kaaba is called shawt. 7 shawts would be a circumambulation. The making of each tawaf is the same. The difference is in determining intent. In this respect, the person who will perform circumambulation determines the type of circumambulation with his intention.
Visiting circumambulation: One of the pillars of pilgrimage is fard circumambulation. The time of its execution is from the dawn of the first day of Eid-al-Adha to the end of life. However, it is wajib to perform this circumambulation on the days of Eid-al-Adha (until the sun sets on the third day). If it is left after the third day, the victim of punishment is wajib. If it is abandoned completely, the pilgrimage becomes invalid and vicious.