The conditions that make Hajj Fardh (compulsory): To be a Muslim, to know that Hajj is a pillar of Islam, to be baligh (reaching the age of puberty), to be sane; to be free; to be able to afford the transport and expenditure for Hajj, to be in the season for Hajj (Waqt), to be able to support those whom one is responsible for.
The conditions that make the performance of Hajj Fardh:
Hajj is of three kinds in terms of Islamic law.
Fardh Hajj: The type of Hajj that a person who meets all the conditions of pilgrimage is required to perform once in his lifetime.
Wajib Hajj: It is the type of pilgrimage, which becomes a requirement upon a Muslim when he vows to fulfill that pillar of Islam. The amendment of a broken Nafilah Hajj is also Wajib.
Nafilah (voluntary) Hajj: The Hajj besides Fardh or Wajib is called Nafilah Hajj. For example, the Hajj a child or a slave undertakes while it is not compulsory for him is a Nafilah Hajj.
In terms of performance, pilgrimage can be divided into three categories.
Hajj Al-Ifrad: This type of Hajj is when it is fulfilled in the months of Hajj (Dhul Hijjah) without an Umrah.
Hajj Al-Tamattu: Performing Hajj and Umrah in the months of Hajj in the same year but in different ihrams (pilgrimage clothing). A Muslim who made the intention for Hajj Al Tamattu can perform Umrah like a Makkan resident whenever he wishes before putting on his ihram for Hajj after fulfilling the Umrah of the Hajj and taking off his ihram. Hajj Al-Tamattu is more virtuous than Hajj Al-Ifrad.
Hajj Al-Qiran: Performing Hajj and Umrah together with one ihram is called Hajj Al-Qiran. This type of Hajj is more virtuous than Hajj Al-Tamattu, and Hajj Al-Ifrad.
Hajj Al-Tamattu and Hajj Al-Qiran are for those who are called “afaqi” that is people who come to Makkah out of the Miqat.
Ibn Batuta, the great historian, wrote in his book Tuhfah al-Nuzzâr:
The residents of Makkah al-Mukarramah prepare for the month of Rajab al-Sharîf days before. The first day of Rajab al-Sharîf is regarded as if an Eid day. Hence, everybody puts on their best clothes, and the residents of remote villages gather in Makkah al-Mukarramah on that day.
The people of Makkah were meticulous about performing Umrah in the month of Rajab al-Sharîf. These Umrah visits continue day and night non-stop.
They take care to spend every moment of Rajab al-Sharîf in Ibâdah (acts of worship), particularly the first, the fifteenth and twenty-seventh days.
I was in Makkah al-Mukarramah on the twenty-seventh of Rajab (Night of Mi‘râj). Everybody gathered at Tan’im, from there crowds of people moved through the valleys of Makkah like a flood. Campfires were lit on both sides of the roads.
When Muslims’ cries of “Lâ ilâha illallâh” echoed in the mountains, the hearts trembled, and tears rolled down the eyes. After people made Tawâf (circumambulation) around the Holy Ka‘bah, they went to Safâ and Marwa for Sa’y during the course of the night. The area was lit with oil lamps and brands and crowded with people. The ladies were making Sa’y in palanquins. Masjid al-Harâm was glittering with Nûr. People spent that night in Ibâdât (acts of worship) till dawn.